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The Crazy Ones, by Félix Máximo López- Scene IV • Act I - Andante

Continuing with the analysis of the text of the Opera "El Disparate O La Obra De Los Locos" on the Bicentennial of the death of Félix Máximo López (Madrid, 1742- Madrid, 1821)

Scene IV • Act I



By the banks of the Nile

a phaeton was sighted

and five triumphal chariots

of Prince Agamemnon. (1*)

[Oriiginal: Por las márgenes del Nilo

se divisó un faetón

y cinco carros triunfales

del Príncipe Agamenón. (1*)]

This whole scene seems to be a kind of ´´Gesta Song` in which historical facts of subjective or "revealing" opinion are mixed, heroes, some mythology, religion, with popular Spanish sayings of mocking contrast but of an idiosyncrasy cultivated to the style of Félix Máximo López.

[Cantar de gesta is the name given to the epic written in the Middle Ages or to an extensive literary manifestation belonging to the epic, which narrates the exploits of a hero whose virtues represent models for a people or community during the Middle Ages.]

(1 *) Agamemnon (in ancient Greek, Ἀγαμέμνων Agamémnôn) is one of the most distinguished heroes of Greek mythology whose adventures are narrated in Homer's Iliad. Son of King Atreus of Mycenae and Queen Aérope, he was the brother of Menelaus.

Powerful king of Mycenae, Agamemnon led the Greeks in the mythical war of Troy, until the taking of the city (some historians find incongruities about whether he won that war). But on her return he died tragically, at the hands of her wife and her lover.

Almost everything that is known about the ancient Nile country came through the Hellenes, who visited, admired and came to control the territory, where they founded factories and even cities. Egypt's own name is Greek.

In the biographies of Agamemnon it is not mentioned that he visited Egypt or ever passed along the banks of the Nile. We are therefore in the twelfth century BC. Even before the reign of Cleopatra in the 1st century BC. He is also not mentioned in the Iliad, or in the Oristiad of Aeschylus. [Agamemnon. In the first work of this trilogy, the return of Agamemnon, King of Argos, from the Trojan War to meet his death is recounted. In his home is his wife, Clytemnestra, who has planned her death as revenge for the sacrifice of her daughter, Iphigenia. Furthermore, since her husband's absence has lasted ten years, Clytemnestra has succumbed to an adulterous relationship with Aegisthus, Agamemnon's cousin and the descendant of a disinherited branch of the family, who is determined to regain the throne he believes in justice belongs to him.]


Then, according to the culture of FML, Agamemnon entered the banks of the Nile, triumphant, being prince of Greece, and at a time when Egypt had strong ties to Greece, or belonged to Greece or was an area of ​​Ethiopia that belonged to Greece. Interesting document for historians of ancient Greece and the history of Egypt. FML had access to the documents in the library of the Royal Palace of Madrid, in which he must have found said fact - relevant to universal culture to be exposed in his opera in this scene and apparently chronologically with the following facts -. It may be in space that it seems that historians comment that Agamemnon was lost after winning the battle of Troy, that he went to Egypt triumphant ... (assumptions ...).


However, FML puts light on the dates, nothing clear so far, since in some places they say some, in others others, and in others they doubt. He prefers the fact that Agamemnon appeared by the Nile, triumphant, before Joseph interpreted the (very famous) dream of the Egyptian Pharaoh of the seven fat cows and the seven skinny cows that appears in Genesis and that the possibility is being considered. between the fourteenth century and the thirteenth century BC. by C.

From what I get the accounts that Agamemnon could have been in the thirteenth century BC. of C., something before the middle.



The seven cows followed

that José deciphered there

[P. 96 of my edition]

[Original: LOCO 4º

Siguieron las siete vacas

que allá descifró José]


A. Pharaoh's dreams and his dilemma.

1. (Genesis 41: 1-7) Pharaoh's disturbing dreams.

It happened, after two years, that Pharaoh had a dream. It seemed to him that he was by the river, and that seven beautiful cows were coming up from the river, very fat, and were grazing in the meadow. After them came up from the river seven other ugly-looking cows with lean meat, which stood near the beautiful cows on the river bank; and the ugly-looking cows with lean meat devoured the seven beautiful and very fat cows. Pharaoh woke up, but fell asleep again, and dreamed the second time: Seven full and beautiful ears of corn grew from a single reed, and after them came another seven small ears, burned by the east wind; and the seven small ears devoured the seven thick and full ears. Pharaoh woke up and saw that it was a dream.

2. (Genesis 41: 8-14) Joseph is called to interpret Pharaoh's dreams.

It happened that in the morning his spirit was agitated, and he sent for all the magicians of Egypt and all his wise men. He told them his dreams, but there was no one who could interpret them to Pharaoh. Then the chief butler said to Pharaoh: "Today I remember my faults." When Pharaoh got angry with his servants, he threw me and the chief bakers into the prison of the house of the captain of the guard. He and I had a dream on the same night, and each dream had its own meaning. A young Hebrew was there with us, a servant of the captain of the guard. We told him, and he interpreted our dreams for us and declared each one according to his dream. And it happened that as he interpreted them for us, that is how it happened: I was reinstated in my post and the other was hanged. Then Pharaoh sent for Joseph; They rushed him out of jail, he shaved, changed his clothes, and came before Pharaoh.


Continue the

Crazy 4th

and twenty-two elephants loaded in Santa Féé

[Original: y veintidós elefantes cargados en Santa Féé]

At first anyone could think of a city called Santa Fe (The two "éé" could be due to the pronunciation of the soprano singer). And the only one is in Argentina, where there were none for the 13th or 12th centuries BC. d. C., native elephants. The same in Mexico or Bolivia, areas with the name of Santa Fe. Logically one would say that FML can refer to Santa Fe in Granada, "The capitulations of Santa Fe" of the Catholic Monarchs and the surrender of Granada as a great historical fact that the composer has chosen to frame some references with some meaning. But there were also no elephants in the Iberian Peninsula at that time.


The only thing that I have found and that could give some meaning, since the two previous proposals of López referred to Egypt (the Nile), the thirteenth century BC. d. C. (reasoned hypothesis), great historical, mythological events or that could be related to sacred documents, such as Genesis, is that the Madrid Master of the Maccabean Books could also be knowledgeable and that his "challenge" to see who is capable of discover the meaning of his "sermon" it was about the Holy City, the City of the Holy Faith, close to Egypt too: Jerusalem. Where yes that elephants could be found at that time, and that although the oldest settlements in Jerusalem are from the V millennium BC. C. and it is one of the oldest cities in the world, it could mean Year 0 = Bethlehem - The Place of Birth of Jesus: Church of the Nativity and pilgrimage route in Bethlehem. And the elephants the arrival of the Kings of the East (at least here they say that Melchior arrived on an elephant: Although many people believe that the three kings were mounted on camels, Catholic history indicates that each of the three Magi was mounted on a different animal.

but would they come alone or accompanied? By saying "loaded elephants" it can symbolize "Christmas presents").

In some way it seems to want to signify a conology of facts in this Scene, selected in some way to, or demonstrate great cultural preparation, to educate in some sense making people think or investigate about it, to summarize in a brief and almost immediate way a vast domain historical cultural comparable to a Grand Master of singular heritage.

The following proposal from Fool 4 refers to "The Codex Calixtinus" (in Latin, Codex Calixtinus; fl. C. 1140-1181) is the proper name of an illuminated manuscript from the mid-twelfth century that contains the oldest text of the Liber Sancti Iacobi (c. 1140-1160).

Crazy 4th

Oliveros and Roldán became Capuchins / and they say that some Longi tertians cured them. (4*)

[Original: Oliveros y Roldán se metieron capuchinos/ y dicen que les curó unas terciánas Longi.]

Oliveros: Character of literary foundations cited in the Codex Calixtinus as Count of Gennes. He was one of the martyrs of the battle of Roncesvalles, in which Roldán also died. His proximity to the nephew of the Emperor Charlemagne leads him to be mentioned in different passages of the Liber Sancti Jacobi, especially throughout what is known as the History of Turpin. In the first of these references [Chapter XI] Oliveros is characterized as the “other Roldán”, as a “leader of the armies, a most courageous knight, very expert in war, very powerful by his arm and his sword, also count of Gennes , son of Reniero ”.

Oliveros set out for Spain, according to Turpin, with three thousand warriors to help Charlemagne in his crusade. The Carolingian emperor ordered Roldán and Oliveros to organize the rear in Roncesvalles [Chapter XXI] after the successful campaign in Pamplona. Once the ambush in which Roldán and Oliveros were involved with their troops was finished, Turpín tells how the soldiers found their companions dead. The narration in Chapter XXVI, in relation to Oliveros' martyrdom, is especially dramatic: “They found him lying on the ground stretched out in the shape of a cross with four sticks fixed to the ground, tied tightly with four ropes, skinned with very sharp knives from the neck to fingernails and toenails, pierced by arrows, bolts, spears, and swords, and roughly beaten and bruised. "

Oliveros was buried in Belín, a town in the Gironde department, in the Aquitaine region, together with “Gandelbodo, King of Friesland, Ogier, King of Dacia, Arestiano, King of Breaña, Garín, Duke of Lorraine, and many others. ”[Chapter XXIX]. His relics are among those mentioned in Book V of the Codex, also known as the Pilgrim's Guide. According to this text, it was obligatory for medieval Jacobean pilgrims to pass through the city of Belín, to pay homage to the fallen in Roncesvalles.

Oliveros in romances //// Likewise, in French deeds Oliveros [Olivier] is mentioned as Roldán's inseparable companion and as the brother of the belle Aude or Doña Alda, who will die of grief after learning of the death of her fiancé Roldán. He also appears in the French poem Fierabrás, as well as in the Poema de Fernán González. Similarly, in the Girard de Vienne, as well as in the poems of Guillermo de Orange, Reniero or Rénier de Gennes he is cited as the father of Oliveros and Alda. However, in the Chanson de Roland the identity of the father of both nobles is changed: in one passage they are the sons of Count Girard, while in another it is said that Oliveros descended from Duke Rénier. Chanson de Roland herself places the relics of Oliveros and those of Archbishop Turpín in Bordeaux, along with those of San Severino. [SOB]

V. Song of Roldán / Roldán

Fierabrás —from the French Fier-à-bras, «brave arm», that is to say, «boastful, bully» - is a fictional character with a long existence that appears in several French epic songs of the Carolingian cycle also known as Fierabrás of Alexandria. Saracen knight of gigantic stature, pagan hero of great strength and magnanimous heart very skilled in the handling of arms, Emir of Alexandria and Sultan of the entire province of Babylon, up to the Red Sea and Jerusalem. He is the son of the powerful Emir Balaan, a man of very great income, lord of many provinces and governor of al-Andalus, and maintains constant conflict with Roldán and the twelve peers, especially Oliveros, with whom he rivals in feats, but after being defeated by this one, becomes Christianity and its friend, and fights in the ranks of Charlemagne's army.

The knight appears documented for the first time in the chanson Fierabras, epic poem and anonymous French deed of the late 12th century, Middle Ages, in which the religious conflict between Moors and Christians plays a fundamental role; 1 and, later, in other languages ​​and in various literary works, epic poems and novels of the Renaissance, chivalric comedies of the Baroque, operas of Romanticism, string literature, graphic novels, folklore, films, puppet theater, popular festivals ...

Especially numerous in France, the chants of the deed are possibly composed mostly by educated clergymen, although some researchers claim that they may be the work of the minstrels or minstrels who sing and recite them.

Many manuscripts of French deed songs are preserved, among which the Chanson de Roland stands out, in Castilian Cantar de Roldán, of which nine have survived, one of them (Oxford manuscript) Anglo-Norman, which describes the defeat of the army of Charlemagne in the valley of Roncesvalles by the emir of Zaragoza, Marsilio, allied with the traitor to Charlemagne, Ganelón. In this battle, the hero of the song, Roldán, and his companion, Oliveros, die for relying too much on their own strength to repel the aggression. When Roldán touches the oliphant to ask for help, it is too late. The revenge of the Emperor Charlemagne occupies the end of the story.

The Song of Roldán is written about three centuries after the fact. Enough time for the events to be transformed and the character of Roldán, who was only the margrave of the Brand of Brittany, becomes the nephew of the old emperor Charlemagne, who now has a "flowery beard." The facts are adorned and endowed with an epic and heroic dimension. The protagonist Roldán is accompanied by an imaginary friend, Oliveros. The ambush of the Basques becomes an attack of 400,000 Saracens, who can only defeat Roldán and the Twelve Peers of France (Frankish noble friends of the archbishop), also due to the betrayal of the "perfidious" Ganelon.

The work deals with these historical events, although transformed: the Basque aggressors are transformed into Muslim Saracens, which makes the expedition a kind of crusade, and the events are triggered starting from the betrayal of Ganelon. Roldán is the nephew of the Emperor Charlemagne and has an inseparable friend, Oliveros (a non-historical figure). The matter is this: after seven years of the Crusade, the Emperor Charlemagne has conquered the north of the Iberian Peninsula from the Moors. He only resists Zaragoza, city of King Marsilio. The Franks receive suspicious peace proposals. Roldán proposes his stepfather Ganelón as ambassador. He believes that Roldán intends to send him to his death and decides to take revenge on him. As ambassador he prepares treason: he incites the Moors against Roldán, whom he holds responsible for the harassment to which they are subjected. Ganelon suggests to Marsilio that he promise Charlemagne whatever, that the troops leave and thus be able to attack the French rear, which will include Roldan and the Twelve Peers of France. Charlemagne returns to France and, at the proposal of Ganelon, entrusts the rear to Roldán.

Charlemagne crosses the Pyrenees, and the huge army of Marsilio falls on the rear that Roldán leads. Despite the advice of the wise Oliveros, Roldán, brave and reckless, does not want to use his horn (the oliphant) to call to his aid the bulk of the army, which has already passed the defile. Roldán, assisted by the flower of the French cavalry, fights bravely and repels two waves of pagans, but at a high price. One by one the knights fall before the incalculable number of Moors who harass them. Roldán finally decides to touch the oliphant to warn his uncle, the Emperor Charlemagne. He does it with such force that his temples explode. But it is too late, he is left alone in the fight and succumbs, like the others, to the enemy. Before dying he wishes to break his Durandarte sword so that it does not fall into the hands of the enemy, but the stone against which he hits his sword is split by the force of Roldán's blow.

When Charlemagne hears the horn calling for help, he suspects Ganelon's treachery and arrests him, and returns to Roncesvalles at the head of his troops. He pursues the retreating Moors and exterminates them on the banks of the Ebro. But once Marsilio's troops have been defeated, Charlemagne must face Baligante, admiral of Babylon. In that battle, Baligante dies at the hands of Charlemagne, who finally manages to take Zaragoza, where Marsilio dies furious. After burying Roldan, Oliveros and Archbishop Turpín in the church of Saint-Romain in Blaye, he returns dejected to Aachen. Oliveros's sister, Alda, dies of grief upon learning of the death of her lover, Roldán, of her.

Battle of Roncesvalles (778). Death of Roldán, in the Great Chronicles of France, illustrated by Jean Fouquet, Tours, around 1455-1460, BNF.

Ganelon is processed. He denies betraying them and claims to have taken revenge on whoever he had sent him to his death. He appeals to God's judgment. The champion who defends Ganelón, Pinabel, is defeated by Thierry d'Anjou, who fights for Roldán. Ganelon is dismembered by four horses. Charlemagne sees how the archangel Saint Gabriel announces his victory in his dreams and retaliates.

The most important characters are strongly characterized:

• Roldán, Charlemagne's nephew, is the prototype of a hero, with long blond hair, a padlocked beard, brave and strong, although he has the defect of being too proud and of committing acts of military indiscipline. Precisely his reckless character is what determines the sad end of the French army, since Roldán's pride prevents him from touching the horn (oliphant) to ask his uncle for help.

• Oliveros, the hero's companion, is the perfect complement for Roldán. He is also brave and powerful, but also combines the virtues of prudence and military discipline.

• Turpin the archbishop, who dies blessing his comrades in arms after having fought like them.

• Ganelon, is the French nobleman who betrays Charlemagne. Despite what might be believed, he is not presented as a disgusting being full of defects, but as a gallant and courageous gentleman with a tender heart. What loses Ganelón is his desire for revenge when he feels offended by the boastfulness of his stepson Roldán.

Book IV - Conquests of Charlemagne

(L'Historia Karoli Magni et Rotholandi)

It is the second book in size, occupying 28 pages (f. 163 - 191). It consists of 26 chapters. In 1609, this book was torn from the manuscript, forming a new volume with the title "Historia Turpini". Finally, it was added back to the Codex Calixtinus during its restoration, in 1966.

It is written in prose by an anonymous clergyman of French origin, probably in the first half of the twelfth century. Following medieval custom, he attributes the paternity of his text to Turpin (748-794), former monk and treasurer of Saint-Denis, who became archbishop of Reims and even figures among the "Twelve Peers" of Charlemagne in the Song of Roldán. For this reason, the book is known to historians as "Pseudo Turpin".

It focuses on the chronicle of Archbishop Turpín and gives an account of the entry of Charlemagne into the Peninsula, the defeat of Roncesvalles and the death of Roldán. He says that Santiago appeared in a dream to Charlemagne, incited him to liberate his tomb from the Muslims and also indicated the direction to follow: a path of stars.

(4 *) Fevers that occurred intermittently. Malaria or tertian fevers -because by this second meaning it was known at the time- is linked in the modernist centuries both to the expansion of rice crops and to the proliferation of swampy and flooded areas. During the 18th century these were certainly abundant in the Valencian territory, together with the coastal and interior lagoons. On the other hand, the expansion of the lands dedicated to rice exploitation is a sufficiently well-known milestone despite the legal obstacles that, with antecedents in medieval times, tried to limit its growth during the 18th century. If rice favored the increase of the Valencian population during this century, trying to feed them in difficult moments derived from the usual wheat deficiencies, it is quite true that it did so at the cost of causing disease and, on many occasions, the death of their growers. It is true that the disappearance of the scourge of the plague made these fevers so closely linked to the life of the Valencian peasant acquire a new dimension. Perhaps in this connection lay the cause of the scant disturbance that they usually caused in his family environment, as its effects were well known, expected and assumed with a mixture of fatalism and resignation. In this context, the occasional appearance of fevers as soon as the summer heats began was fully justified, as well as the effects caused on human settlements as described, among others, by the naturalist Cavanilles with his usual solvency.

Malaria, or malaria, is a life-threatening disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to humans by the bite of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. It is a preventable and curable disease. In 2019, there were an estimated 229 million cases of malaria worldwide.

Longi: pref. Word component from lat. longus, which means longitudinal length.

Then "tertian Longi" could mean chronic, long-lasting malaria disease, said in a traditional way that could be used in a popular way in the MLF area.

It is possible that what López wanted to point out (hypothetically based on some document from the Royal Chapel) is that Oliveros and Roldán - the most famous couple of Spanish characters in the gesta songs - became friends when they entered as Capuchins during the time they were they cured of malaria, of what they suffered for a long time. An idea that remains incomplete when verifying that the Capuchin order is not from the 13th century but from the 16th century: The order was born around 1525:

Although the Franciscans appear in 1209, perhaps FML interpreted that belonging to the Franciscan order was synonymous with Capuchins.


These phrases of the text alternate with a kind of old sayings or sayings, by way of reply, mocking contrast with the seriousness of the sentence, or musical support.

CRAZY 1st, 2nd, 3rd

"Chilindrín, chilindrín, chilindrón, if you're red, it's from an almazarrón."

[Original: LOCOS 1º, 2º , 3º

“Chilindrín, chilindrín, chilindrón, si estás colorado es de almazarrón.”]

Chilindrina: «Thing of little entity or no substance, founded only on appearance or artifice» (Aut); cfr. Estebanillo, I, p. 273: «The father, somewhat angry to hear me say chilindrinas in times of so many truths ...»; Loa with which Lorenzo Hurtado began in Madrid the second time in Quiñones de Benavente, Jocoseria, vv. 25-27: «Well, if he brings me to court / without comedies or charms / of danced chilindrinas». DD, v. 300 chilindrón: kind of insult, ‘fool, fool’; comp. Rojas Zorrilla, Progne and Filomena, p. 58: «This is as it should be; / servitor, Mr. Chilindrón: / Did you find the fine diamonds? ». MV, v. 613

"Fame, money and freedom, which is the legitimate chilindrón of congratulations ..." Diego de Torres Villarroel

Diego de Torres Villarroel, was a writer, poet, playwright, doctor, mathematician, priest and professor at the University of Salamanca.

Born: June 17, 1693, Salamanca

Death: June 19, 1770, Salamanca

Genre: Novel

Given that José Zorrilla y Moral (Valladolid, February 21, 1817-Madrid, January 23, 1893) was almost after FML, the first meaning of the term “chilindrón” would be Diego de Torres Villarroel.

<< The doctors were completely bored and confessing that they no longer knew or found in the chilindrón of their three animal, vegetable or mineral kingdoms with which to help me, they handed me almost deceased to the conjurers, who picked me up in their jurisdiction for a few days. The first to attack me with spells was a devout Capuchin, who took care of my soul in the first jerks of the disease; and sometimes, in the healthy state of his body, he raised her from the depths, in which he very often he fell with the aids of his warnings and absolutions from him. He attended my bedside with charity, pity and unalterable tolerance all the time that the sorrow and violence of my rare and unknown accidents had me lying in his narrowness, the sweet simplicity of his words being the only consolation of my afflictions, the only relief. of my sorrows and the particular alarm clock of my conformities. This venerable man is called Fray León de Guareña, a native of this town in Extremadura, and today he lives as a vicar in the convent of the Capuchins of Cubas. >> [LIFE DIEGO DE TORRES VILLARROEL - 125 pages] http: //www.biblioteca

Almazarrón. Etymology

Perhaps of almagrazón, augmentativo of almagre, by metathesis

Red clay, rich in iron oxide, used as a dye

The almagre or almagra - a term used since 1278, from the Hispanic Arabic almáḡra, and this from the classical Arabic maḡ [a] rah, 'red earth' - is a pigment used in artistic painting, in pottery and as one of the techniques of chromatic decoration Older.

The phrase seems a nonsense, purely of musicality, a kind of escape with sympathy, and culture.

CRAZY 1º. 2nd, 3rd

"With coffee, with coffee, with coffee, if you're angry I don't know why."

I found in Don Quixote a phrase about anger:

"If your grace gets angry," Sancho replied, "I'll keep quiet and stop saying what I am obliged to as a good squire and how a good servant should say to his master."

It may come to mean FML, as a kind of saying, cliché, or popular saying of the area, that having a coffee, I do not feel alluded or annoyed, but protected from your anger, offenses, or annoyances.

In the form of a couplet [The couplet or couplet is a stanza of two verses that rhyme with each other, this rhyme being able to be in consonant or assonance. These couplets can be of minor art or major art and both verses must have the same measure.

It is the simplest of the stanzas, which is why it is frequently used in the proverbs. It has rarely been used in lyrical poetry, although it has been used in didactic, narrative, or epigrammatic poetry. It also abounds in choruses. In the Castilian lyric, and especially in the Galician-Portuguese lyric, a composition based on couplets with a chorus, called cosante, has been used.] The first time the word coffee appears as a plant and as a drink in an official way is in the Dictionary of Authorities of the Royal Spanish Academy, in 1726. "We must not confuse the opposition from cult to popular: everything is cultured, the popular is of one level and the literate of another", warns Pedro Luis Barcia. "The saying is the tweet of popular wisdom" Former president of the Argentine Academy of Letters, the specialist in the origin of words rescues the importance of coffees. The Dictionary of the Royal Academy defines the saying as "acute and sententious saying in common use." Popular wisdom, some sayings on the subject of getting angry:

Cada pajarito tiene su higadito.

Each bird has its liver. (It indicates that a person, even if patient, gets angry sometimes.)

Quien se enoja, no negocia.

Who gets angry, does not negotiate.

Quien se pica, ajos come.

Whoever bites, eat garlic.

Quien se pica, el mismo se lo aplica.

Who is itchy, the same applies it.

Cuanto se hace por despecho es mal hecho.

Anything done out of spite is badly done.

Quien se enoje, dos trabajos tiene, y tres si no come.

Whoever gets angry, has two jobs, and three if they don't eat.

Ajo y agua.

Garlic and water.

Vivirás dulce vida, si refrenas tu ira. You will live sweet life, if you restrain your anger.


CRAZY 1st, 2nd, 3rd

"With cumin, cumin, cumin, those murderers die at once."

[Original: LOCOS 1º, 2º, 3º

“Con cominos, cominos, cominos, mueran al punto esos asesinos.”]

About whom López can refer to about "those murderers", I do not think it is directed at the Moors who killed the hero and brave warrior Roldán, nephew of the Emperor Charlemagne, or (supposedly also Oliveros) in an ambush, since in the previous sentence, the mocking reply seems to be disconnected from the historical allusions, and since it resembled a coupled saying in popular use, this other sentence could also be something of the same. Ancient proverb therefore lost in time, since, searching, I have not managed to find anything or the like. I interpret its meaning that it can be in a structure similar to the previous saying, that is, cumin has healthy and relaxing properties (it is stomachic, carminative and sedative with effects similar to those of fennel, anise or caraway. Its essential oil causes muscle relaxation ). It is native to the Mediterranean basin. There is a well-known expression even today with the popular phrase "I don't give a damn", to offer the idea of ​​something unimportant due to the small size of such a seed. But this food supplement, being relaxing, may want to counter that effect that without giving the slightest importance the spell that the enemies die instantly is carried out, a kind of evil eye, curse, enchantment or spell (popular witchcraft? ), but without even blinking an eye and with only one tool: add cumin to the cooking. In fact, cumin is used in some countries to ward off bad vibes.



"Convoy to this train of the Burra de Balám

without stumbling in Esquivias they entered Tetouan."

[Original: LOCO 4º

"Comboy á do aqueste tren de la Burra de Balám

sin tropezar en Esquivias embocaron en Tetuán.”]

This is a phrase that is in disuse and that nowadays you hardly hear it said. Years ago, indicating that someone was like Balaam's donkey was used to refer to a person who apparently was not too smart or did not stand out for his intelligence and who, unexpectedly, gave advice with the solution that solved a problem.

To find the origin of the expression we must go to the Old Testament, where in 'The book of numbers' (22-24) we can find that the prophet Balaam is quoted at the moment when, mounted on his donkey, he goes to curse to the Israelites who came to the Kingdom of Moab to conquer it.

According to this text of the Bible, an angel sent by Yahweh who carried a long sword appeared on the road, to which the donkey turned away from the path and Balaam beat her three times. The animal finally turned to his master and asked why he had beaten him, the prophet answering that he had done so by straying out of the way.

At that moment the angel sent said:

Why have you spanked your donkey these three times? I am the one who has come out to resist you, because your way is wicked in front of me. The donkey has seen me and has turned away from me these three times. And if he had not left her from me, he and he would have killed you, and he would have left her alive

And it was from this parable that the saying "to be like Balaam's donkey" arose to refer to those subjects who are often despised or considered inferior and who are sometimes the ones who provide the exact solution that is needed to solve a doubt or problem.

The word "train" comes from the French "train" that has existed since the 12th century, being the deverbal for "trainer" (drag). It corresponded to “what creeps” and also to the “step” of saying the “march”. In the armies there was the "baggage train" (carriages that transported everything the troops needed in their movements. When the railways were born, the French adopted the word "train" that the English had taken before.

Train, train, sled, hustle and bustle. they descend from a Latin base of the Latin verb "trahere" which meant "to drag." Cultisms such as tractor or traction descend from that idea, linked to the idea of ​​dragging physically, and, or figuratively: attracting, attraction. The current verb to bring means to bring something to where one is, to where the self speaks (to bring). To carry would be to bring to where one, the self, is not.

Etymology of "aqueste". From the old Castilian aqueste ("this"), and this from the vulgar Latin * accu ("here") and * istu ("this"), from the Latin eccum ("here") and istum ("this").

In the Cantar del Mio Cid (written in medieval Spanish and composed around the year 1200) the word "aqueste" is used.

[…] Fire the comboy to take troops. To do this, a lot of time and uselessly would be spent in going and drinking to Velasco and in distributing the boats in the dark, which is not very easy. Mexor was in advance to tell each boat where he left […] (Life of Carlos III, 18th century).

<< And the next day he was in the same position covering the Caualleria; And after the Army was found besieged in Tarragona, he was appointed to go as a comboy to the Caualleria forage: and, raising the enemy with all his fat to cut him off, he withdrew without losing a soldier, for the Master of the Field Don Fernando de Ribera left. to make diuersion to the enemy, with whom he studied the said Don Ioseph skirmishing almost all day, and holding the post until the said Don Fernando arrived: already the retreat next to the Cross faced the enemy, who with all his thick auia After the skirmish for the Hill of the Gallows attacked, he even withdrew without being able to evict the said Don Ioseph from the position he occupied >> A lost memorial of Don Pedro Calderón Edward Meryon Wilson Emmanuel College, Cambridge

The development of the steam engine prompted the idea of ​​creating steam locomotives that could pull trains along lines. The first was patented by James Watt in 1769 and revised in 1782, but the engines were too heavy and low pressure to be used in locomotives. In 1804, using a high-precision engine, Richard Trevithick presented the first locomotive capable of pulling a train in Merthyr Tydfil (United Kingdom). 1314 Conducted together with Andrew Vivian, the test was relatively successful, 15 as the locomotive broke the locomotive fragile iron sheet rails.

In 1811, John Blenkinsop designed the first functional locomotive to be featured on the line between Middleton and Leeds. The locomotive, called Salamanca, was built in 1812.

Relative adverbs of place in medieval Spanish * Javier Elvira UAM Philology and Linguistics. Studies offered to Antonio Quilis, Madrid, CSIC / UNED / Universidad de Valladolid, 2005, pp. 1235-1248.

Shows the relationship with the old relative adverbs (d) o and (d) onde.

"Esquivias" is a Spanish municipality and town in the province of Toledo, in the autonomous community of Castilla-La Mancha.

Its foundation is lost at the origin of time, as remains of the Paleolithic, Neolithic, Celtic, Roman, Visigothic and Islamic cultures have been found. After the reconquest of La Sagra by Alfonso VI in 1085, it would be repopulated by Mozarabs from Toledo.

The population belonged to the kings of Castile, from Alfonso VI to Alfonso VIII who decided to donate it in 1188 to the Church of Toledo. In 1218 this donation would be confirmed by Fernando III el Santo, the municipality having to pay certain tributes as vassalage. In 1480 the residents managed to stop paying taxes, but they could not get rid of their vassalage until June 23, 1650.

During the war of the Communities in 1521, Esquivias was the last town that surrendered to the troops of Carlos V.

In the census of 1575 that Felipe II ordered to be carried out, the municipality had 250 residents, 37 of whom were noblemen. On December 12, 1584, Miguel de Cervantes married Catalina de Palacios, a native of Esquivias, in the parish church, in a ceremony that was prompt in due time and form, since Cervantes had never been in Esquivias, possibly fleeing love affairs in the town and Madrid court (possible pregnancy). [citation needed] In 1768, Esquivias obtained the title of Villa Realenga. Manuel Huerta y Portero, a 19th century painter, was born in the town.

Azorín places there the action narrated in his article "La novia de Cervantes" (1905), included in his book Los Pueblos. During the Civil War the rebellious and republican sides fought in the vicinity of the town, occupying it.

Tetuán: The connection between the North African city and Spain comes from afar. During the War of Granada, many Muslims residing in the peninsula emigrated to the Wattasid domains of the neighboring Sultanate of Fez and later, with the expulsion of the Sephardim, another wave of "old Hispanics" settled in what is now Tetouan.

The Hispanics who founded Tetouan (15th to 17th century).

The first Granadans (there were less than 100 families) who arrived in the area of ​​what will become Tetouan in 1483, established scattered settlements around the ruins of a fortification that had been built to control the Portuguese advance in Ceuta, but that they had managed to destroy. the soldiers of Henry the Navigator. Although its port was still in operation.

They did not have it easy, the Berber kábila of the Beni Hozmar, claiming that they were invading their territory, harassed them until the Sultan of Fez sent troops to protect them and authorized the reconstruction of the population and the erection of new walls. It would be these exiles from the Iberian Peninsula (Hispanic then), under the command of a former captain of Boabdil's troops called Madri, who raised a wall and rebuilt "the town" (Al Bled) what is now considered the founding nucleus from Tetouan.

Among the "Al-Garnati" who emigrated to Tetouan, special mention is always made of this Granada captain named Ali al-Mandari or Madri. Man who will come to occupy the post of first governor of the city and who will be succeeded by his wife, Sayyida al-Hurra - who on Madri's death would marry the Sultan of Fez - being remembered as the greatest rulers of the city , founders of the modern settlement and promoters of its golden age.

Around 1550, Leon the African describes the city like this, mentioning the possible origin of its name:

It is a small city built by the ancient Africans about eighteen miles from the Strait […] The Mohammedans took it from the Goths at the time they took Ceuta from them. It is said that, at the time of taking it, they put it in the hands of a one-eyed countess […] hence the town was called tetteguin, which means “eye” in the African language, because it only had one. After a time, the Portuguese waged war on this population, took it and expelled its people, Tetouan remaining depopulated for ninety-five years, after which it was rehabilitated by a Granada captain who arrived with the King of Granada in Fez. after Granada was taken by Don Fernando, King of Spain […] Called Almandalí by the Portuguese, it was up to him to have remade Tetouan […]

According to the historian Skirej (1483), 80 Moors from Granada began to build houses in the part called Al Balad, but were harassed by the Beni Hozmar tribe, who claimed ownership of the site. Upon being informed of their complaints, Sultan Mohammad Ach-Chaikh Al Wattassi loaned them 40,000 mithqal and sent 40 guards from Fez and another 40 from the Rif to protect them. He wrote to the Governor of Chefchaouen, Moulay Ali Ben Moussa Ben Rached El Alami, requesting that he send a competent person to build a defensive wall. Mohammed ben Ali Al Mandari, a commander of Andalusian origin, united the city, of which he was governor and architect. He is considered to be the true founder.

Convoy: masculine noun. This word refers to a guard that is intended to be carried safely and securely in something, usually by land or at sea. Set of boats, carriages or equipment fully escorted or protected. Means of transport in which it works with the locomotive and has several wagons.

Naval convoys have been used for centuries, with examples of merchant ships traveling under naval protection dating back to the 12th century. [1] The use of organized naval convoys dates back to when ships began to divide into specialized classes and national navies were established.

For the French revolutionary wars of the late 18th century, effective naval convoy tactics had been developed to ward off pirates and corsairs. Some convoys contained several hundred merchant ships. The most enduring convoy system was the Spanish treasure fleets, which sailed from the 1520s to 1790s.

When merchant ships sailed independently, a privateer could cross a shipping lane and capture ships in his wake. Ships sailing in convoys presented a much smaller goal: a convoy was as difficult to find as a single ship. Even if the corsair found a convoy and the wind was favorable for an attack, he could still hope to capture only a handful of ships before the rest managed to escape, and a small escort of warships could easily thwart him. As a result of the effectiveness of the convoy system, wartime insurance premiums were consistently lower for ships sailing in convoys.

Many naval battles in the Age of Sailing were fought around convoys, including:

The Battle of Portland (1653) • The Battle of Ushant (1781) • The Battle of Dogger Bank (1781) • The glorious first of June (1794) • The Battle of Pulo Aura (1804)


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